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Amazon Global Store. Energy Star. New Used Renewed.Flange joints require proper tightening to avoid the leak of the fluid from the joint. Bolt tightening sequence or torque sequence is defined in the torque tightening procedure. Most company has their Flange bolt torque tightening procedure that used during construction and operation of the plant. Flange joints are torque tight with the help of a torque wrench Manual or hydronic wrench.
To achieve the benefits of the pre-loading, the clamping force in the screw must be higher than the joint separation load. When the bolt loading requires a torque higher than Nm ft-lbs. Image source- Fluid Power Technology. The torque value is dependent on the friction between the threads of stud bolt and nut head, this friction can be affected by the application of a lubricant or any plating e. Cadmium or Zinc applied to the stud threads. If a bolt is torqued rather than the nut then the torque value should be increased to compensate for the additional friction — bolt should only be torqued if they are fitted in clearance holes.
The bolts shall be tightened by torque control, using the Anti-seize lubricant shall be used such as Molykote or equivalent, before installation. The specified method of bolt tightening is equally applicable to coated, galvanized and ungalvanized bolts. Flange stud Torque Sequence is extremely important to achieve the proper tightening of the flange joint. In this detailed article, I have tried to simplify this Torque Sequence so that you achieve the desired result without damaging the flange and studs.
Visually examine the flange alignment to ensure that an acceptable fit has been obtained. While aligning flanges, make sure that there are no residual stresses in the joint.
The use of heat correction for the alignment of flanges is not good practice and should be strictly prohibited.Quick shifting
Once all pre-checks are completed. You can go ahead with tightening the stud in the pre-define torque sequence mentioned here. For easy handling, bolt numbering shall be done clockwise around the flange with the following sequence. Thank You for subscribing to Hardhat Engineer. Your Ebook will Open in New Tab. Image source- Fluid Power Technology The torque value is dependent on the friction between the threads of stud bolt and nut head, this friction can be affected by the application of a lubricant or any plating e.
Pre-checks for Bolt Tightening Flange Condition Check conditions of flange faces for scratches, dirt, and scale.A wrench is connected to a nut as shown in each of these pictures. In picture 1, a person pushes down and applies a force of 1 N to the end of the wrench at a point 0. In picture 2, an object with a weight of 1 N is hung from the end of the wrench at a point 0.
In picture 3, the same object is hung from the same point, but from a shorter string.Diagram based wiring diagram for a celica 94 completed
In picture 4, the same 1 N force is applied at the same point, but at an angle of o up from the horizontal. In each case the wrench will tend to rotate, and if it does the nut will turn. As you can see, the direction of rotation clockwise or counterclockwise will depend on the direction in which the force is applied.
Compare pictures 1, 2 and 3. Will the initial turning effect be the same in each case? The measure of the "turning effect" or rotational tendency is called torque.
The sine function appears because only the component of the force perpendicular to the lever arm will tend to produce rotation. In the case shown here, the rotation direction is counterclockwise. By definition, the torque in this case is positive. An equivalent approach is to consider the perpendicular distance from the fulcrum to the line of action of the force.
This distance is r sin q and the torque is. Scroll up and look at pictures 1, 2 and 3. The forces all have the same magnitude and the same line of action, so they all produce the same torque. In these cases:. The sign is positive because the rotational tendency is counterclockwise. Note that torque seems to have the same units as work and energy. But torque is not work or energy! It is not correct to say that 1 mN of torque equals 1 joule of torque.When studying how objects rotate, it quickly becomes necessary to figure out how a given force results in a change in the rotational motion.
The tendency of a force to cause or change rotational motion is called torqueand it's one of the most important concepts to understand in resolving rotational motion situations. Torque also called moment — mostly by engineers is calculated by multiplying force and distance. Torque is a vector quantity, meaning it has both a direction and a magnitude. This is honestly one of the trickiest parts of working with torque because it is calculated using a vector product, which means you have to apply the right-hand rule.
In this case, take your right hand and curl the fingers of your hand in the direction of rotation caused by the force.
Flange Bolt Torque Sequence and Torque Table – A Complete Bolt Tightening Procedure
The thumb of your right hand now points in the direction of the torque vector. This can occasionally feel slightly silly, as you're holding your hand up and pantomiming in order to figure out the result of a mathematical equation, but it's the best way to visualize the direction of the vector. This is a vector with a magnitude of the distance from where the force is applied to the axis of rotation. It points from the axis of rotation toward the point where the force is applied.
Let's consider an example where you're applying a vertical force downward, such as when trying to loosen the lug nuts on a flat tire by stepping on the lug wrench. In this situation, the ideal situation is to have the lug wrench perfectly horizontal, so that you can step on the end of it and get the maximum torque. Unfortunately, that doesn't work. The lug wrench is 0.My family and other animals movie online free
What is the magnitude of the torque? What about direction? Using your right hand and curling your fingers in the counter-clockwise direction, the thumb sticks out. So the direction of the torque is away from the tires To begin calculating the value of the torque, you have to realize that there's a slightly misleading point in the above set-up. This is a common problem in these situations. The angle between r and F has to be calculated. That's the only variable that requires set-up, so with that in place we just assign the other variable values:.
Note that the above answer involved maintaining only two significant figuresso it is rounded. The above equations are particularly helpful when there is a single known force acting on an object, but there are many situations where a rotation can be caused by a force that cannot easily be measured or perhaps many such forces.
This relationship is given by the following equation:. Share Flipboard Email. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Math and Physics Expert.
Andrew Zimmerman Jones is a science writer, educator, and researcher. He is the co-author of "String Theory for Dummies. Updated October 18, Quick Links. See also: Owner's ManualManual.How to Calibrate a Torque Wrench - WikiVideo
Table of Contents. The aprilia s. Company reserves the right to make changes to its models at any time, without prejudice to the essential characteristics described and illustrated in this manual. To consult the manual, see the contents indicating the sections. When this symbol is seen on the motorcycle or in the manual, be careful of the potential risk of injury. Always wear close-fitting gloves and protective clothing when handling battery electrolyte.
Mark the positions of all the connection joints hoses, cables, etc. It is best to refuel and carry out maintenance in well ventilated places with the engine switched off. The information below refers to a single braking system but is valid for both. In addition road handling will be compromised, especially on bends and on wet roads.
A tyre that is under inflated pressure too low may slip on the wheel rim causing the rider to lose con- trol of the vehicle. Page Running In After the first km miprogressively increase speed until maximum performance is reached. Changing the chassis number result sin the guarantee be- coming null and void immediately.
APRILIA Mojito 50 Workshop Manual
Page 27 Right inspection cover Right rear-view mirror M50 in the countries where required Brake fluid reservoir front brake Horn Fuel tank If the vehicle is used on dusty or wet roads, the cleaning op- erations and replacement should be carried out more fre- quently. Before adjusting the carburettor make sure that it is properly lubricated, that the spark plug is in good condition, the air cleaner is clean and airtight, and that the exhaust system is completely airtight. Check the spark plug after the first km mi and suc- cessively every km mi.
Change it every km mi.
Use the recommended type of spark plug only, otherwise the life and performance of the engine may be compromised. Jet holder Gas valve cover Clamp Gasket Idle jet Spring Hose Plate O-Ring Metering rod lock Pipe fitting Arrange the nec- essary equipment accordingly.
WARNING When removing the fuel supply pipe and the vacuum pipe, mark them to avoid inverting them accidentally when refitting the engine. M8 low self-locking nut M8x35 hex screw M4x10 hex socket screw Right electrical control place In any object experiencing torque, there is a pivot point, which on the see-saw is the balance-point, and which in the wrench and bolt combination is the bolt.
In each case, there is also a place where force is being applied.Coronavirus: firmato protocollo dintesa fmi-federfarma
On the seesaw, it is the seats, each holding a child of differing weight. Seesaws are a good example of torque. Many people have had the experience of someone sitting on one end of the seesaw and another person sitting on the other end; and one person is heavier than the other. By sitting closer to the pivot, the heavier person can decrease their torque because the length of the moment arm will be shorter than that of the smaller person.
Wrenches also work by torque. Some wrenches are even calibrated to display the amount of torque the user is applying to a nut; they are called torque wrenches.
The nut or bolt is the point of rotation because the user wants to tighten or loosen it by having it turn. The force is being exerted by the hand and arm. People use wrenches to exert a ninety degree force on the nut or bolt. To increase the torque on the nut, either increase the length of the moment arm length of the wrench or increase the amount of force being applied to the nut or bolt.
Torque Project. Search this site. Torque What is Torque? How is Torque used? How does Torque compare to force?
Vocabulary Free Body Diagram. Calculating Torque. Everyday Examples of Torque. Simple Problems.Angular websocket
Misconceptions Helpful and Fun Links Sources. Examples of torque are all around you every day. A few objects which experience torque are hinged doors, see-saws, wrenches, and more complex motors vacuum cleaners and computer printers, dishwashers and so many more.
Simple Explained Examples: In any object experiencing torque, there is a pivot point, which on the see-saw is the balance-point, and which in the wrench and bolt combination is the bolt. Everyday Examples of Torque Examples of torque are all around you every day.The Northern Lights tour was wonderful. We really enjoyed the winter activities also. Booking was very easy. Jennie, our agent, was fantastic. She sorted everything out in the limited time we had in Kiruna and her suggestions to fit in as much as we did in three days were all great.
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